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common dandelion species

Wigg. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. × Terrestrial Map - 10km. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. Though they’re non-native to North America (originally hailing from Europe), dandelions are not considered invasive by federal agencies. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. There are many myths and mysteries about dandelions, including the belief that picking them will cause incontinence. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. vulgare (Lam.) The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. While dandelions make lawn care m ceratophorum) is native there.[24]. Types of Dandelions: White Found growing natively in eastern, central and southern Asia, notably in Korea and Japan, the white dandelion (Taraxacum albidum), or … In part, this is due to the fact that most people can easily recognize dandelions and that they are accessible almost everywhere. Also see Dandelion … officinale) Although Katmai has multiple species of native dandelions, the common dandelion is a threatening invasive in the park. [55] Rudenskaya et al. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. Dandelion is a hardy perennial plant. [37] When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. A menace to gardeners and homeowners looking for a lush, green lawn, this plant can also be cultivated or foraged as food. In April they almost dominate the landscape. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ssp. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. An annoyance, perhaps, but far from being aggressively spreading plants that alter natural habitats, the hallmark of a truly invasive species. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. Schinz ex Thell. Common dandelion plants can be distinguished because young leaves do not have hairs, whereas cat's ear dandelion leaves have dense hairs. Wigg. [56] Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. [40], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. [53] It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. Family: Asteraceae (ass-ter-AY-see-ee) Genus: Taraxacum (ta-RAKS-uh-kum) Species: officinale (oh-fiss-ih-NAH-lee) Synonym: Chondrilla taraxacum: Synonym: Leontodon taraxacum: 38 members have or want this plant for trade. Common dandelion is distinguished from other plants by the presence of milky juice, lobed or divided leaves in the rosette stage, the soft texture and irregular lobing of leaves, the absence of prickles on margins or midribs, the smooth or softly hairy leaf surfaces, and a deeply penetrating taproot. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. The common dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the family of the Asteraceae. Schinz & R. Keller : Taraxacum palustre var. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Fernald : Common Name(s): common dandelion [English] blowball [English] faceclock [English] dandelion [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers", "Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)", "The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day", Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taraxacum_officinale&oldid=991122464, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 11:08. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. Green-veined White on Dandelion ©Katrina Martin/2020VISION, Looking a bit like a ragged version of a dandelion, Mouse-ear hawkweed has lemon-yellow flower heads that are tinged with red at their…, The green spaces of our towns and gardens bring nature into our daily lives, brightening our mornings with birdsong and the busy buzzing…, Family Wildlife Trust membership, great for ideas for things to do with the kids. Here are some of the more common varieties of dandelion plants: Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is the familiar, bright yellow dandelion that pops up along roadsides, in meadows, along riverbanks, and of course, in lawns. Other common names: Blowball Other scientific names: Leontodon taraxacum, Taraxacum dens-leonis, Taraxacum taraxacum, Taraxacum vulgare French names: Pissenlit officinal Family: Composite Family (Asteraceae) Group: Dandelions Similar species: • Marsh Dandelion (Taraxacum palustre) - Sepals are not recurved downward. [17] List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. [13], The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages,[14][15] and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. The fruits, called cypselae,[12] range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. ssp. 117. Taraxacum officinale ssp. [32] It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. [36] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. Seed heads are about the size of a golf ball, perfectly round, grayish-white. View this plant in a garden. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis Some authorities recogni… [49], T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. Dandelion leaves contain a lot of vitamins. Dandelion is a highly useful green and seed to collect for the rehabber pantry. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the g… These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. The common dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. [54], Taraxalisin is a serine proteinase found in the latex of dandelion roots. David McKay, New York. The Common Dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other Dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. ceratophorum (Ledeb.) Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. Take a look at Dandelion family classification in the upcoming sections. The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. Reference: Notes: Ecol Soc Jpn (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. [citation needed]. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. Species Detail - Common Dandelion (Taraxacum polyodon) - Species information displayed is based on all datasets. Even though dandelion pollen is of poor nutritional quality for honey bees, they readily consume it, and it can be an important source of nutritional diversity in heavily managed monocultures such as that of blueberries. Our commitment to Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI), Different types of protected wildlife sites. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. You'll get a fun kids wildlife magazine packed…, The Wildlife Trusts: Protecting Wildlife for the Future. Dandelions may seem humdrum, but their genus has roughly 40 species – including some plants with red flowers and others in danger of extinction. Registered charity number 207238. [53][verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. [34] It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. The Wildlife Trusts is a movement made up of 46 Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared mission. Seeds are carried by the wind. Originally from Europe, it occurs nearly worldwide. – dandelion Species: Taraxacum officinale F.H. Chijinshokan, Tokyo (in Jpn) JWRC (ed) (2008) A Photographic Guide to the Invasive Alien Species in Japan. T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. T. erythrospermum), Red-seeded Dandelion; achenes reddish brown and leaves deeply cut throughout length. The scientific name of Dandelion is Taraxacum while its common name is Dandelion. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. [11], The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. The species is native to Europe and Asia but can be found worldwide in temperate climates (Berg, 2007). As a common species dandelion requires no conservation measures to secure its occurrence. The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Species : Synonym(s): Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct. These scientific names are the combination of two terms: the genus and the species. Category: Perennials. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. Common dandelion is the familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. Taraxacum officinale is a ruderal species, which can be commonly found in highly urbanized areas. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis,[10] notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. [46], Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. non Rodin : Taraxacum vulgare Lam. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.[24]. [41] Another plant, sometimes referred to as fall dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændᵻlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the genus. Species Detail - Common Dandelion (Taraxacum polyodon) - Species information displayed is based on the dataset "BSBI tetrad data for Ireland". Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Common dandelion is a preferred food of domestic sheep grazing on mountain meadows and is readily eaten by cattle on rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) prairies in Alberta. ssp. Taraxacum laevigatum (syn. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this microspecies.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species … Inner bracts' tips are hooded. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom. [42], T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. It is a minor component of bighorn [44] The flowers are used to make dandelion wine,[45] the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. [38][39] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. The dandelion does not exist of a single species, but of an agglomeration of many micro species, which is partly the result of its possibility of multiplication by means of unfertilized seeds (cloning). Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers). The plant forms a rosette with strongly toothed leaves and the stems are hollow with on top a flower head consisting of many yellow ray florets. [43], While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. Dandelions are well-known, robust weeds; the common name derives from the French ' dent de lion ', meaning 'lion's tooth', which refers to the deeply toothed, deep green leaves (4), … View gallery. In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). Both species are edible in their entirety. There are up to two hundred and thirty five micro species of dandelion all lumped under the Taraxacum officinale name. Wigg. This is without a doubt the most commonly encountered and widely recognized plant species across all age groups and skill levels. Dandelions can be found in bloom, scattered here and there throughout the growing season. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. [35], The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. Common Name: Dandelion - Kukraundha, Kanphool, Common dandelion, Dandelion: Family: Asteraceae or Compositae : USDA hardiness: 5-9: Known Hazards: This plant has been mentioned in various books on poisonous plants but any possible toxins will be of very low concentration and toxicity[10]. in height. Nowadays it is used, for example, in salads.

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